No story is complete without dialogue yet punctuating speech is many a writer’s bane. Where do those pesky commas go? How do you indicate multiple speakers? And how on earth do you format speech?!
Books need dialogue. But get the punctuation wrong and you risk drawing your reader out of the story; the one thing that you absolutely want to avoid.
So why does writing dialogue, and doing it well, often stump authors? It can be daunting and remembering the rules of dialogue punctuation is half the battle.
If punctuating dialogue is one hurdle that stops you in your tracks, then read on and use this quick reference guide to get you back on track.
Identifying speech: Using quotation marks
When you add dialogue to your story, the first thing you have to do is think about how you’re going to identify the fact that somebody’s talking. And using italics doesn’t cut it. Italics are usually saved for when somebody is having an internal thought—and you don’t want your readers mistaking dialogue for thoughts.
Depending on whether you’re in the US or the UK, plus the house style of the publishing house, the most common indicator of speech you’ll see are either single or double quotation marks. Double quotation marks ( “ ) are more common in the US, while single ( ‘ ) are more common in the UK.
If self-publishing, whichever one you choose will mostly depend on personal preference. However, you should consider what is most common for the countries where you plan to publish; common punctuation helps avoid drawing the reader out of the story. The most important thing is, that whichever style you choose, you must be consistent.
Quotes within dialogue
Once you’ve decided how you’re going to identify speech—whether it’s with single or double quotation marks—you may find that at some point, a character will be quoting what somebody else has said. So how do you go about identifying a quote within dialogue?
It’s actually very simple. You just use the opposite identifier of what you’ve already chosen. So, if you’ve chosen single quotation marks to identify dialogue, you will use double quotation marks to identify a quote within speech.
When using single quotation marks to identify speech, it would look like this:
‘I did ask Beth if she’d come to the party, but she said “As if!” in that perfect high-school voice she has.’
When using double quotation marks to identify speech, it would look like this:
“I did ask Beth if she’d come to the party, but she said ‘As if!’ in that perfect high-school voice she has.”
Smart vs undirectional quotation marks
This is how your quotation marks look to the reader. Smart quotation marks, sometimes referred to curly quotation marks, are those that curl towards the text at both the beginning and the end. Undirectional, or straight, quotation marks, do not curl towards the text. It’s important to note that in mainstream publishing, it’s conventional to use smart (curly) quotation marks. Not all fonts have curly quotation marks so you may want to read up on how to add them in manually.
Commas and full stops within tagged speech
So you’ve identified what is dialogue by using quotation marks, but how do you now punctuate it correctly to identify which character said it? Knowing where to put commas and full stops within dialogue and dialogue tags is something that often trips writers up.
First, let’s explain the two parts which make up dialogue. There’s the dialogue text and the dialogue tag. The dialogue text is the part of the sentence being spoken, and the dialogue tag (or action) is the part where the speaker is identified (usually in the way of [character name] said).
The rules are pretty simple:
- If the dialogue tag follows a complete sentence, put a comma before the closing quotation mark.
Example: “This is an example of a dialogue tag following a complete sentence,” Stacey said.
- If the dialogue tag follows a question mark or an exclamation mark, then these also go before the closing quotation mark.
Example: “Is this the right way of using question marks during speech?” Stacey asked. (Just to confirm, yes, this is correct.)
- If the dialogue tag or action is before the dialogue text, then the punctuation is reversed. In other words, follow the dialogue tag or action with a comma, before the dialogue text. Then end the dialogue text with a full stop, inside the closing quotation mark.
Example: Trying to explain dialogue punctuation, Stacey said, “The rules are pretty simple once you’ve grasped the basics.”
Ellipsis and Em Dashes
Ellipsis (the three dots: … ) and em dashes (the longest “dash”: — ) are used in mainstream publishing to indicate a significant pause/trailing off and interruption of speech respectively.
The ellipsis can go at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a sentence, depending on where you want the speech to trail off or where you want the pause to be. But be mindful of not repeating yourself; if you use the ellipsis to indicate a pause or trailing off, then trust your readers will acknowledge it.
There is no reason to also add in the dialogue tag that the speaker trailed off/paused as well. It adds unnecessary clutter and actually risks pulling the reader out of the story. Using correct punctuation helps to show your reader what is happening, you don’t then also need to tell.
There are a couple of simple rules to follow when using the ellipsis:
- If used at the start of the sentence, add a space between the final period of the ellipsis and the next character (letter or number).
- If the ellipsis is used in the middle of a sentence, place a space at the beginning and at the end.
- And if it’s used at the end of a sentence, place a space between the last character and the first period of the ellipsis.
Don’t confuse the em dash with the hyphen or en dash. There are plenty of articles out there which explain the difference so we won’t go into that here, but just note that the em dash is the longest “dash” of the three. Some word processors will automatically change a hyphen into an em dash, but it’s safest to know how to add it into text. To do this on a windows computer, simply hold down the Alt key and type 0151 then release all keys.
In mainstream publishing, the em dash ( — ) represents the interruption of a speaker. Using this form of punctuation instead of adding [character name] interrupted in the dialogue tag can significantly improve the flow and pace of your writing.
People will interrupt speech for a variety of different reasons. It can show emotions like impatience, shock, annoyance, anger, etc. But whatever reason you’re using it, be mindful that, just like with using ellipsis, there is zero reason to add in the dialogue tag that the speaker was interrupted. Let the punctuation do its job.
Formatting dialogue, whether it’s to indicate multiple speakers, long passages of dialogue, or to add a dialogue tag or action between the dialogue is quite simple. But ensure you follow these rules, no matter if you’re in the UK or the US.
When there are two people or more involved in dialogue, each person’s dialogue should be on its own separate line.
“Hi, hunny. Did you decide what you wanted for dinner?”
“I’d like something with mash,” Stacey said.
If the conversation continued, mum’s next dialogue would continue on its own separate line. However, if Stacey was the next person to speak or act, it would continue on the same line.
“Hi, hunny. Did you decide what you wanted for dinner?”
“I’d like something with mash,” Stacey said, heading into the kitchen. “Maybe sausages?”
Do you see how the second part of Stacey’s dialogue stayed on her line? If we had moved that down onto its own separate line, it would have implied that her mum had said it.
That’s because not every line needs dialogue tags. And that’s evidenced quite clearly in the example above.
There’s no reason to add dialogue tags in the first two sentences, it’s clear who is saying what. Plus, your readers are pretty smart—they’re pretty good at figuring out who’s talking at what point.
Just don’t forget to add in the odd dialogue tag in a long passage of dialogue just to remind your readers of who’s speaking when.
Long passages of dialogue
If you only have one speaker, and that speaker has a long piece of dialogue (this is usually advised against as it’s best to try to break up dialogue, but sometimes this isn’t always possible), then the same rules as above apply.
However, you can’t just have one massive wall of text, at some point you will have to add a paragraph break. When you do, you simply need to add an opening quotation mark at the start of the paragraph and only have a closing one when the dialogue is finished.
“I’m not sure what I’d like for dinner tonight, mum. At first, I thought I might like sausage and mash. But then I remembered I only had mash last night so decided against it.
“Tom mentioned pizza earlier so I do kinda fancy that now, but I know we don’t have any salad to go with it and you know I can’t eat pizza without salad.
“How about a nice chilli? You’re the best at cooking that. And you know it’s my favourite.”
Breaking up dialogue with dialogue tags or action
Sometimes, you will want to add some form of dialogue tag or action between a sentence your character is saying. In this case, the rule is to add a comma before the first closing quotation mark, and then after the dialogue tag or action.
“I think,” she started, opening the fridge, “I’d like something simple. Like sausages.”
Less commonly, em dashes without spaces (in the US) and en dashes with spaces (in the UK) are used in place of commas. But their placing goes outside of the closing quotation mark.
“I think”—she started, opening the fridge—“I’d like something simple. Like sausages.” (US)
“I think” – she started, opening the fridge – “I’d like something simple. Like sausages” (UK)
Punctuating vocative expressions in dialogue
A vocative expression is where you mention a person’s name or use some other way of identifying a person to whom a request or command is being directed.
There are set rules as to how vocative expressions should be punctuated and these rules apply when using them in dialogue, too.
A person’s name, job title, and the pronoun you are all examples of vocative expressions.
If the vocative expression is used at the start of a sentence, place a comma after it.
Example: “Stacey, do you know where I put my keys?”
If the vocative expression is used at the end of a sentence, put a comma before it.
Example: “You don’t know where I left my keys do you, Stacey?”
If the vocative expression is used in the middle of a sentence, place a comma before and after it.
For example: “Hey, Stacey, where did I put my keys?”
Do YOU have any questions when it comes to punctuating dialogue?